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DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.10
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101032
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Bene Watts, Adam ; Harrow, Aram W. ; Kanwar, Gurtej ; Natarajan, Anand

Algorithms, Bounds, and Strategies for Entangled XOR Games

LIPIcs-ITCS-2019-10.pdf (0.5 MB)


Entangled games are a quantum analog of constraint satisfaction problems and have had important applications to quantum complexity theory, quantum cryptography, and the foundations of quantum mechanics. Given a game, the basic computational problem is to compute its entangled value: the supremum success probability attainable by a quantum strategy. We study the complexity of computing the (commuting-operator) entangled value omega^* of entangled XOR games with any number of players. Based on a duality theory for systems of operator equations, we introduce necessary and sufficient criteria for an XOR game to have omega^* = 1, and use these criteria to derive the following results:
1) An algorithm for symmetric games that decides in polynomial time whether omega^* = 1 or omega^* < 1, a task that was not previously known to be decidable, together with a simple tensor-product strategy that achieves value 1 in the former case. The only previous candidate algorithm for this problem was the Navascués-Pironio-Acín (also known as noncommutative Sum of Squares or ncSoS) hierarchy, but no convergence bounds were known.
2) A family of games with three players and with omega^* < 1, where it takes doubly exponential time for the ncSoS algorithm to witness this. By contrast, our algorithm runs in polynomial time.
3) Existence of an unsatisfiable phase for random (non-symmetric) XOR games. We show that there exists a constant C_k^{unsat} depending only on the number k of players, such that a random k-XOR game over an alphabet of size n has omega^* < 1 with high probability when the number of clauses is above C_k^{unsat} n.
4) A lower bound of Omega(n log(n)/log log(n)) on the number of levels in the ncSoS hierarchy required to detect unsatisfiability for most random 3-XOR games. This is in contrast with the classical case where the (3n)^{th} level of the sum-of-squares hierarchy is equivalent to brute-force enumeration of all possible solutions.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Adam Bene Watts and Aram W. Harrow and Gurtej Kanwar and Anand Natarajan},
  title =	{{Algorithms, Bounds, and Strategies for Entangled XOR Games}},
  booktitle =	{10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science  Conference (ITCS 2019)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-095-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{124},
  editor =	{Avrim Blum},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101032},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Nonlocal games, XOR Games, Pseudotelepathy games, Multipartite entanglement}

Keywords: Nonlocal games, XOR Games, Pseudotelepathy games, Multipartite entanglement
Collection: 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)
Issue Date: 2018
Date of publication: 08.01.2019

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