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DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.54
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109980
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Böker, Jan ; Chen, Yijia ; Grohe, Martin ; Rattan, Gaurav

The Complexity of Homomorphism Indistinguishability

LIPIcs-MFCS-2019-54.pdf (0.5 MB)


For every graph class {F}, let HomInd({F}) be the problem of deciding whether two given graphs are homomorphism-indistinguishable over {F}, i.e., for every graph F in {F}, the number hom(F, G) of homomorphisms from F to G equals the corresponding number hom(F, H) for H. For several natural graph classes (such as paths, trees, bounded treewidth graphs), homomorphism-indistinguishability over the class has an efficient structural characterization, resulting in polynomial time solvability [H. Dell et al., 2018].
In particular, it is known that two non-isomorphic graphs are homomorphism-indistinguishable over the class {T}_k of graphs of treewidth k if and only if they are not distinguished by k-dimensional Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm, a central heuristic for isomorphism testing: this characterization implies a polynomial time algorithm for HomInd({T}_k), for every fixed k in N. In this paper, we show that there is a polynomial-time-decidable class {F} of undirected graphs of bounded treewidth such that HomInd({F}) is undecidable.
Our second hardness result concerns the class {K} of complete graphs. We show that HomInd({K}) is co-NP-hard, and in fact, we show completeness for the class C_=P (under P-time Turing reductions). On the algorithmic side, we show that HomInd({P}) can be solved in polynomial time for the class {P} of directed paths. We end with a brief study of two variants of the HomInd({F}) problem: (a) the problem of lexographic-comparison of homomorphism numbers of two graphs, and (b) the problem of computing certain distance-measures (defined via homomorphism numbers) between two graphs.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Jan B{\"o}ker and Yijia Chen and Martin Grohe and Gaurav Rattan},
  title =	{{The Complexity of Homomorphism Indistinguishability}},
  booktitle =	{44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)},
  pages =	{54:1--54:13},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-117-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{138},
  editor =	{Peter Rossmanith and Pinar Heggernes and Joost-Pieter Katoen},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109980},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.54},
  annote =	{Keywords: graph homomorphism numbers, counting complexity, treewidth}

Keywords: graph homomorphism numbers, counting complexity, treewidth
Collection: 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)
Issue Date: 2019
Date of publication: 20.08.2019

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