License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/OASIcs.FAB.2021.2
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-139883
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Cholvi, Vicent ; Fernández Anta, Antonio ; Georgiou, Chryssis ; Nicolaou, Nicolas ; Raynal, Michel ; Russo, Antonio

Byzantine-Tolerant Distributed Grow-Only Sets: Specification and Applications

OASIcs-FAB-2021-2.pdf (0.7 MB)


In order to formalize Distributed Ledger Technologies and their interconnections, a recent line of research work has formulated the notion of Distributed Ledger Object (DLO), which is a concurrent object that maintains a totally ordered sequence of records, abstracting blockchains and distributed ledgers. Through DLO, the Atomic Appends problem, intended as the need of a primitive able to append multiple records to distinct ledgers in an atomic way, is studied as a basic interconnection problem among ledgers.
In this work, we propose the Distributed Grow-only Set object (DSO), which instead of maintaining a sequence of records, as in a DLO, maintains a set of records in an immutable way: only Add and Get operations are provided. This object is inspired by the Grow-only Set (G-Set) data type which is part of the Conflict-free Replicated Data Types. We formally specify the object and we provide a consensus-free Byzantine-tolerant implementation that guarantees eventual consistency. We then use our Byzantine-tolerant DSO (BDSO) implementation to provide consensus-free algorithmic solutions to the Atomic Appends and Atomic Adds (the analogous problem of atomic appends applied on G-Sets) problems, as well as to construct consensus-free Single-Writer BDLOs. We believe that the BDSO has applications beyond the above-mentioned problems.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Cholvi, Vicent and Fern\'{a}ndez Anta, Antonio and Georgiou, Chryssis and Nicolaou, Nicolas and Raynal, Michel and Russo, Antonio},
  title =	{{Byzantine-Tolerant Distributed Grow-Only Sets: Specification and Applications}},
  booktitle =	{4th International Symposium on Foundations and Applications of Blockchain 2021 (FAB 2021)},
  pages =	{2:1--2:19},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-196-2},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{92},
  editor =	{Gramoli, Vincent and Sadoghi, Mohammad},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-139883},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.FAB.2021.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Grow-only Sets, Distributed Ledgers, Blockchains, Atomic appends}

Keywords: Grow-only Sets, Distributed Ledgers, Blockchains, Atomic appends
Collection: 4th International Symposium on Foundations and Applications of Blockchain 2021 (FAB 2021)
Issue Date: 2021
Date of publication: 25.06.2021

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