Abstract
A deterministic finite automaton (DFA) ? is composite if its language L(?) can be decomposed into an intersection ⋂_{i = 1}^k L(?_i) of languages of smaller DFAs. Otherwise, ? is prime. This notion of primality was introduced by Kupferman and Mosheiff in 2013, and while they proved that we can decide whether a DFA is composite, the precise complexity of this problem is still open, with a doublyexponential gap between the upper and lower bounds. In this work, we focus on permutation DFAs, i.e., those for which the transition monoid is a group. We provide an NP algorithm to decide whether a permutation DFA is composite, and show that the difficulty of this problem comes from the number of nonaccepting states of the instance: we give a fixedparameter tractable algorithm with the number of rejecting states as the parameter. Moreover, we investigate the class of commutative permutation DFAs. Their structural properties allow us to decide compositionality in NL, and even in LOGSPACE if the alphabet size is fixed. Despite this low complexity, we show that complex behaviors still arise in this class: we provide a family of composite DFAs each requiring polynomially many factors with respect to its size. We also consider the variant of the problem that asks whether a DFA is kfactor composite, that is, decomposable into k smaller DFAs, for some given integer k ∈ ℕ. We show that, for commutative permutation DFAs, restricting the number of factors makes the decision computationally harder, and yields a problem with tight bounds: it is NPcomplete. Finally, we show that in general, this problem is in PSPACE, and it is in LOGSPACE for DFAs with a singleton alphabet.
BibTeX  Entry
@InProceedings{jecker_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2021.18,
author = {Jecker, Isma\"{e}l and Mazzocchi, Nicolas and Wolf, Petra},
title = {{Decomposing Permutation Automata}},
booktitle = {32nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2021)},
pages = {18:118:19},
series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN = {9783959772037},
ISSN = {18688969},
year = {2021},
volume = {203},
editor = {Haddad, Serge and Varacca, Daniele},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl  LeibnizZentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
address = {Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2021/14395},
URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030drops143956},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2021.18},
annote = {Keywords: Deterministic finite automata (DFA), Permutation automata, Commutative languages, Decomposition, Regular Languages, Primality}
}
Keywords: 

Deterministic finite automata (DFA), Permutation automata, Commutative languages, Decomposition, Regular Languages, Primality 
Collection: 

32nd International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2021) 
Issue Date: 

2021 
Date of publication: 

13.08.2021 