License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0)
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DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.77
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146581
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Radoszewski, Jakub ; Rytter, Wojciech ; Straszyński, Juliusz ; Waleń, Tomasz ; Zuba, Wiktor

Hardness of Detecting Abelian and Additive Square Factors in Strings

LIPIcs-ESA-2021-77.pdf (1.0 MB)


We prove 3SUM-hardness (no strongly subquadratic-time algorithm, assuming the 3SUM conjecture) of several problems related to finding Abelian square and additive square factors in a string. In particular, we conclude conditional optimality of the state-of-the-art algorithms for finding such factors.
Overall, we show 3SUM-hardness of (a) detecting an Abelian square factor of an odd half-length, (b) computing centers of all Abelian square factors, (c) detecting an additive square factor in a length-n string of integers of magnitude n^{?(1)}, and (d) a problem of computing a double 3-term arithmetic progression (i.e., finding indices i ≠ j such that (x_i+x_j)/2 = x_{(i+j)/2}) in a sequence of integers x₁,… ,x_n of magnitude n^{?(1)}.
Problem (d) is essentially a convolution version of the AVERAGE problem that was proposed in a manuscript of Erickson. We obtain a conditional lower bound for it with the aid of techniques recently developed by Dudek et al. [STOC 2020]. Problem (d) immediately reduces to problem (c) and is a step in reductions to problems (a) and (b). In conditional lower bounds for problems (a) and (b) we apply an encoding of Amir et al. [ICALP 2014] and extend it using several string gadgets that include arbitrarily long Abelian-square-free strings.
Our reductions also imply conditional lower bounds for detecting Abelian squares in strings over a constant-sized alphabet. We also show a subquadratic upper bound in this case, applying a result of Chan and Lewenstein [STOC 2015].

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Radoszewski, Jakub and Rytter, Wojciech and Straszy\'{n}ski, Juliusz and Wale\'{n}, Tomasz and Zuba, Wiktor},
  title =	{{Hardness of Detecting Abelian and Additive Square Factors in Strings}},
  booktitle =	{29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)},
  pages =	{77:1--77:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-204-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{204},
  editor =	{Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146581},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.77},
  annote =	{Keywords: Abelian square, additive square, 3SUM problem}

Keywords: Abelian square, additive square, 3SUM problem
Collection: 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)
Issue Date: 2021
Date of publication: 31.08.2021

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