License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.ECOOP.2023.14
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182076
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Kuessner, Christian ; Mogk, Ragnar ; Wickert, Anna-Katharina ; Mezini, Mira

Algebraic Replicated Data Types: Programming Secure Local-First Software

LIPIcs-ECOOP-2023-14.pdf (3 MB)


This paper is about programming support for local-first applications that manage private data locally, but still synchronize data between multiple devices. Typical use cases are synchronizing settings and data, and collaboration between multiple users. Such applications must preserve the privacy and integrity of the user’s data without impeding or interrupting the user’s normal workflow - even when the device is offline or has a flaky network connection.
From the programming perspective, availability along with privacy and security concerns pose significant challenges, for which developers have to learn and use specialized solutions such as conflict-free replicated data types (CRDTs) or APIs for centralized data stores. This work relieves developers from this complexity by enabling the direct and automatic use of algebraic data types - which developers already use to express the business logic of the application - for synchronization and collaboration. Moreover, we use this approach to provide end-to-end encryption and authentication between multiple replicas (using a shared secret), that is suitable for a coordination-free setting. Overall, our approach combines all the following advantages: it (1) allows developers to design custom data types, (2) provides data privacy and integrity when using untrusted intermediaries, (3) is coordination free, (4) guarantees eventual consistency by construction (i.e., independent of developer errors), (5) does not cause indefinite growth of metadata, (6) has sufficiently efficient implementations for the local-first setting.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Kuessner, Christian and Mogk, Ragnar and Wickert, Anna-Katharina and Mezini, Mira},
  title =	{{Algebraic Replicated Data Types: Programming Secure Local-First Software}},
  booktitle =	{37th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2023)},
  pages =	{14:1--14:33},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-281-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{263},
  editor =	{Ali, Karim and Salvaneschi, Guido},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182076},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECOOP.2023.14},
  annote =	{Keywords: local-first, data privacy, coordination freedom, CRDTs, AEAD}

Keywords: local-first, data privacy, coordination freedom, CRDTs, AEAD
Collection: 37th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP 2023)
Issue Date: 2023
Date of publication: 11.07.2023
Supplementary Material: Software (ECOOP 2023 Artifact Evaluation approved artifact):
Software (Source Code): archived at:

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