License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2023.16
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183664
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GroƟmann, Ernestine ; Sauer, Jonas ; Schulz, Christian ; Steil, Patrick

Arc-Flags Meet Trip-Based Public Transit Routing

LIPIcs-SEA-2023-16.pdf (0.8 MB)


We present Arc-Flag TB, a journey planning algorithm for public transit networks which combines Trip-Based Public Transit Routing (TB) with the Arc-Flags speedup technique. Compared to previous attempts to apply Arc-Flags to public transit networks, which saw limited success, our approach uses stronger pruning rules to reduce the search space. Our experiments show that Arc-Flag TB achieves a speedup of up to two orders of magnitude over TB, offering query times of less than a millisecond even on large countrywide networks. Compared to the state-of-the-art speedup technique Trip-Based Public Transit Routing Using Condensed Search Trees (TB-CST), our algorithm achieves similar query times but requires significantly less additional memory. Other state-of-the-art algorithms which achieve even faster query times, e.g., Public Transit Labeling, require enormous memory usage. In contrast, Arc-Flag TB offers a tradeoff between query performance and memory usage due to the fact that the number of regions in the network partition required by our algorithm is a configurable parameter. We also identify a previously undiscovered issue in the transfer precomputation of TB, which causes both TB-CST and Arc-Flag TB to answer some queries incorrectly. We provide discussion on how to resolve this issue in the future. Currently, Arc-Flag TB answers 1-6% of queries incorrectly, compared to over 20% for TB-CST on some networks.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Gro{\ss}mann, Ernestine and Sauer, Jonas and Schulz, Christian and Steil, Patrick},
  title =	{{Arc-Flags Meet Trip-Based Public Transit Routing}},
  booktitle =	{21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023)},
  pages =	{16:1--16:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-279-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{265},
  editor =	{Georgiadis, Loukas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183664},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.SEA.2023.16},
  annote =	{Keywords: Public transit routing, graph algorithms, algorithm engineering}

Keywords: Public transit routing, graph algorithms, algorithm engineering
Collection: 21st International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms (SEA 2023)
Issue Date: 2023
Date of publication: 19.07.2023
Supplementary Material: Software (Code): archived at:

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