License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2023.13
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186390
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Hong, Aaron ; Oliva, Marco ; Köppl, Dominik ; Bannai, Hideo ; Boucher, Christina ; Gagie, Travis

Acceleration of FM-Index Queries Through Prefix-Free Parsing

LIPIcs-WABI-2023-13.pdf (1 MB)


FM-indexes are a crucial data structure in DNA alignment, but searching with them usually takes at least one random access per character in the query pattern. Ferragina and Fischer [Ferragina and Fischer, 2007] observed in 2007 that word-based indexes often use fewer random accesses than character-based indexes, and thus support faster searches. Since DNA lacks natural word-boundaries, however, it is necessary to parse it somehow before applying word-based FM-indexing. Last year, Deng et al. [Deng et al., 2022] proposed parsing genomic data by induced suffix sorting, and showed the resulting word-based FM-indexes support faster counting queries than standard FM-indexes when patterns are a few thousand characters or longer. In this paper we show that using prefix-free parsing - which takes parameters that let us tune the average length of the phrases - instead of induced suffix sorting, gives a significant speedup for patterns of only a few hundred characters. We implement our method and demonstrate it is between 3 and 18 times faster than competing methods on queries to GRCh38. And was consistently faster on queries made to 25,000, 50,000 and 100,000 SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Hence, it is very clear that our method accelerates the performance of count over all state-of-the-art methods with a minor increase in the memory.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Hong, Aaron and Oliva, Marco and K\"{o}ppl, Dominik and Bannai, Hideo and Boucher, Christina and Gagie, Travis},
  title =	{{Acceleration of FM-Index Queries Through Prefix-Free Parsing}},
  booktitle =	{23rd International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2023)},
  pages =	{13:1--13:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-294-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{273},
  editor =	{Belazzougui, Djamal and Ouangraoua, A\"{i}da},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186390},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.WABI.2023.13},
  annote =	{Keywords: FM-index, pangenomics, scalability, word-based indexing, random access}

Keywords: FM-index, pangenomics, scalability, word-based indexing, random access
Collection: 23rd International Workshop on Algorithms in Bioinformatics (WABI 2023)
Issue Date: 2023
Date of publication: 29.08.2023
Supplementary Material: Software (Source Code of PFP-FM):

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