License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.29
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88207
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Sasaki, Tatsuya ; Mizuki, Takaaki ; Sone, Hideaki

Card-Based Zero-Knowledge Proof for Sudoku

LIPIcs-FUN-2018-29.pdf (0.4 MB)


In 2009, Gradwohl, Naor, Pinkas, and Rothblum proposed physical zero-knowledge proof protocols for Sudoku. That is, for a puzzle instance of Sudoku, their excellent protocols allow a prover to convince a verifier that there is a solution to the Sudoku puzzle and that he/she knows it, without revealing any information about the solution. The possible drawback is that the existing protocols have a soundness error with a non-zero probability or need special cards (such as scratch-off cards). Thus, in this study, we propose new protocols to perform zero-knowledge proof for Sudoku that use a normal deck of playing cards and have no soundness error. Our protocols can be easily implemented by humans with a reasonable number of playing cards.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Tatsuya Sasaki and Takaaki Mizuki and Hideaki Sone},
  title =	{{Card-Based Zero-Knowledge Proof for Sudoku}},
  booktitle =	{9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)},
  pages =	{29:1--29:10},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-067-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{100},
  editor =	{Hiro Ito and Stefano Leonardi and Linda Pagli and Giuseppe Prencipe},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88207},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2018.29},
  annote =	{Keywords: Zero-knowledge proof, Card-based cryptography, Sudoku}

Keywords: Zero-knowledge proof, Card-based cryptography, Sudoku
Collection: 9th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2018)
Issue Date: 2018
Date of publication: 04.06.2018

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